During the Ming and Qing dynasties, fuzhou merchants pursued luxury in consumption concept and became more and more influential in the local area

2022-05-08 0 By

The appearance and development of fuzhou merchant group in Ming and Qing dynasties is the result of various resultant forces.First of all, the increase of population led to a serious shortage of cultivated land. Meanwhile, the Ming Dynasty began to implement the policy of monetary service, which led to a large number of farmers abandoning their farms and doing business. In addition, the development of commodity economy and monetary economy in the Ming and Qing dynasties further promoted the business atmosphere.Although the development scale and influence of this business gang were insignificant in the whole commercial history of China, the social changes in Fuzhou during the Ming and Qing Dynasties were influenced in many ways. To be precise, a large number of farmers’ business activities had mutual influence with the rural social changes.During the Ming and qing dynasties fuzhou merchants curtilage DiMingQing before, is the main agricultural production on rural, fuzhou merchants economic power, fuzhou merchants in the local influence is also growing economic power and influence in the local also more and more big, in addition to political and economic clout, the impact on rural social life is everywhere.Before the Ming and Qing Dynasties, rural areas were mainly agricultural production, with relatively backward productive forces and low living standards, so consumption capacity was also very limited. Advocating simplicity and avoiding luxury was a popular moral fashion and consumption habit in traditional Chinese society.But when it came to the Ming and Qing Dynasties, especially the Qing Dynasty, jiangxi could not accommodate too much surplus population, forcing a large number of people to do business out of livelihood, the single rural economic structure changed greatly.Farmers have become rich through business, and their living conditions have been greatly improved, as well as their social status. As a result, people’s consumption level has been greatly improved, and they pursue luxury in consumption concept.During the Ming and Qing dynasties, peasants, especially those who abandoned them, were not well educated. Once they got out of poverty, they unconsciously invested a large part of their commercial profits in daily life consumption rather than investment reproduction.Extravagant general mood of society affect the rural society, in the process of social climate change, and to live with change obviously this luxury society affect the rural society, such as chongren county mountains and rivers beautiful, climate is folk music, and hired regardless of wealth, marriage funeral will follow the ancient, ChuSang when cooked, gentry shame being rich, xi shi, but by the end of jiajing, people born a little heart, and gradually move the vulgar,Good competition and turn to good luxury, Jinxi county civilian farming, so no profit, narrow people thick, for a third of the merchants, scholars show and good modesty, nearly a tiny, village zhongxing waste solid.The environment of Le ‘an county is mountainous, and vehicles are blocked by narrow passes, so there are few merchants except for scholars, but the farmers are poor in land and labor, and the products are not enough for the national use. There are many board houses and soil walls, but there is no waste of carving and steep, and the women are diligent in weaving. Although the rich room is full of zhuer luoqi ornaments, it has gradually become luxurious since modern times.In the Ming and Qing dynasties, nanfeng County also gradually engaged in the luxury of commercial life. This change of consciousness will certainly have a great impact on the local social life, which can be reflected in the life consumption of clothing, food, housing and transportation, and weddings and funerals, from the previous simple gradually to extravagance and waste, the pursuit of luxury consumption.As one of the common consumption of life, food, clothing, housing and daily necessities, changes are also obvious in the process of social climate change.Early clothes are simple, less bright clothes, homemade and cheap homespun cloth.With the development of rural commodity economy, the diet also by Jane to luxury, from less to more varieties, fruit not cramped by local dishes but as farmers get rich business, also have a new pursuit, in the dress is not only the need of improving living standards, and dress can show oneself’s economic success, meet the needs of their own vanity,Xincheng county gas high competitive and more sincere good quality, and less wealth storage box, slightly win li.With the development of rural commodity economy in Ming and Qing dynasties, women exchanged logistics frequently. In terms of food, they changed from simple to luxurious and from less varieties to more varieties.Before the Ming and Qing dynasties, the diet was simple. Besides chicken, duck, fish and turtle, the newcomers in fujian were all inferior products, and most of the guests were pork changing products to fill the number.To the end of the Ming Dynasty with the development of rural market, the varieties of food materials on the market also have new changes, kitchen nanzhou wine, and Zhejiang xiang Anhui fermented by and become a common dish receive visitors.At the same time, the planting of some cash crops will also have an impact on the diet structure. For example, in The Ming and Qing Dynasties, Dongxiang County planted a large number of peanuts, leading to the local people began to eat peanut oil, which remained clear for a long time. People fought for it.Food is also gradually moving toward luxury, the luxuriant house of food thick feasting beautiful utensils or accept from the expensive, unwilling to accept the people, drink utensils with the banquet day to luxury, for luxury consumption is not scrupulous, banquet fruit dishes, with big utensils, no more than five products, called the dish.After the use of small dish, to dozens of products, called the cluster dish.Recent copy of Beijing, miscellaneous Chen Qipin, also tide.Ming and Qing dynasties food culture dishes and fruits are not limited to local soil products, all local treasures can be seen.Housing can reflect the facade, so the building is also very particular about ostentation.In housing construction is also pay attention to ostentation and extravagance, marriage custom has become increasingly prevalent, extravagant “theory of marriage wealth” spread to every social class such as flow pit of lean on home soil slope before, that opened without carve, businessmen who made his fortune in addition to investment of production, after other important investment is to build luxury residential, appear even businessmen behind the phenomenon of the joneses,The vast majority of the qing Dynasty mansion in the village are built by businessmen, Jinxi Fang Keting “jia Wu, yue, Huai, not three years, hundreds of gold, is the structure of the house”.Since ancient times, marriage has been in accordance with the ritual system, pay attention to the family status, emphasis on family lintels, opposed to the theory of wealth.But with the continuous development of commodity economy, marriage custom has changed a lot, the phenomenon of asking for financial gifts is very common, marry more expensive, the combination of both men and women, with a relatively strong commodity color, marriage on wealth, not relying on no change in the old, and growing day by day.In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the wind of marriage became more and more popular, and the form of marriage changed from simple to complex, from simple to luxury.Nanfeng county “marriage, multiple goods bribe”, crown is tedious, the legacy of head with six ritual marriage discussion at the beginning of the wedding, bride price content by Kim colour currency dolphin to Bai Jindai COINS, and affected the trends of marriage in the future, according to the wedding the bride with its force that thickness of section, namely the ancient 徴 meaning also, both BuJi currency and send it namely, najib also.It is precisely because of the “marriage on wealth” storm and various social classes, resulting in many families bear a very heavy economic burden, and even some families in order to marry a female bankrupt.So from the beginning of the Qing Dynasty in Jiangxi very serious phenomenon of infant drowning, such as Yihuang County “old local customs drowning women, cover the margin of marriage also thin”, Chongren county “people are drowning women, care and marry difficult”.In the Ming and Qing dynasties, women in the harem were not only willing to spend money on marriage, but also on the funeral of the dead.Such as Linchuan county home, camp thick burial to the ordinary people quite far, tide the waste of the habit, every mud in feng shui said, to have a coffin for many years without burial, this custom is also bad, Nanfeng county as for the funeral, business is luxury easy.It is not wrong to pay attention to the funeral, to do a good funeral, is also to express the grief and respect for their relatives, the atmosphere should be solemn, but in the late rural areas, there is a widespread “money instead of close friends”, in the funeral banquet, comparing with each other.Although such extravagant consumption has affected the original capital accumulation of businessmen, on the other hand, the rise of such consumption trend has objectively stimulated the formation and development of consumer market, thus driving the development of commodity economy.Reference Source: Draft of Qing Dynasty history