High yield and high efficiency cultivation technology of Sorghum

2022-06-05 0 By

Popularization and application of local varieties, timely planting and seedling transplanting + green + reasonable density, scientific fertilization, high-yield cultivation techniques, prevention and control of adjust measures to local conditions to execute machine-cultivated, mechanical sowing, receive, reasonable application HongLiang + soybean/vegetables/Chinese/edible fungi such as efficient dry land tillage, vigorously promote HongLiang – canola/green manure 2-year tongue peas (arrow).(1) Variety selection.Local excellent varieties hongyizi, Hongzhu, Tainuo 9, Hongnuo 5, Maoliang nuo 2, etc.(2) Timely sowing.The sowing time is determined according to the local temperature rise and stability in early spring. In general, the ground temperature 5 cm below the surface of the soil is stable at more than 10-12℃. The sowing time is in the middle and late April, and 8-10 seeds are sown in each hill-point.Seedling cultivation methods include nutritional ball (block), hole plate, floating seedling and other three ways, seedling transplanting each hole (block, ball, hole) sowing 3-4 seeds.Seedling transplanting per mu with 0.5 kg of seed.Direct seeding with a variety of 1-1.5 kilograms per mu.(3) Pharmaceutical seed dressing.Soak the seed with 45-55℃ warm water, non-organic cultivation area can choose the agent to mix the seed, with 2% tebutazol or 50% carbendazim wettable powder or 80% wettable wettable seed dressing agent according to 0.3% of the weight of the seed, dry after sowing.(3) Breeding seedlings.1. Seedbed selection.The seedbed site is mainly loamy soil with convenient water source, sunny leeward, fertile soil and no chemical pollution.2. Seedbed area.The proportion of seedling bed and field by 1∶30, planted 667 square meters field with 22 square meters of seedling bed.Nutrient block (ball) seedling bed and the ratio of field by 1∶40, planted 667 square meters field with seedling bed 16.5 square meters.Floating seedling:Choose 160-hole polyethylstyrene foam plastic plate, disinfect the plate with potassium permanganate, and then install matrix fertilizer, each plate is loaded with about 2kg, sow 2-3 seeds in each hole, after sowing, gently press the surface of the seedling plate with wood, achieve the leveling of the seedling plate, so that the seeds fall into the nutrient soil matrix, with the matrix properly cover the seed after the disk into the nutrient pool floating,Then every 12 plates add special seedling fertilizer 300g.Every 667㎡ field needs 25-30 seedling trays.3. Bed fattening: 15 to 20 days before sowing, plough the soil and remove weeds and stones.Remove sowing seedling according to every 1 square meter seedbed with decomposed high quality organic fertilizer 3-5 kg applied in seedbed, fine leveling, fertilizer soil.Nutrient block (ball) seedling to the bed soil screening, according to the volume ratio of farm fertilizer and fine soil 1∶1 mixed, piled up to mature reserve.(4) transplanting.When the harvested seedlings grow to 4 leaves, they can be raised and transplanted. When the nutrient-block seedlings are raised, they should be transplanted at 4-5 leaves. When the sawed seedlings are raised, they should be transplanted at 5-7 leaves.When raising seedlings, attention should be paid to prevent root injury, remove diseased seedlings, weak seedlings, miscellaneous seedlings, and transplanting with soil.1. Transplanting method.Take net or intercropping.2. Transplanting density.167 cm open box with crop rotation, in 100 cm green manure belt transplanted 3 rows of sorghum, nest distance 33.3-40 cm, 2 plants per nest, mu guaranteed 6000 — 7200 plants;267 cm open box with crop rotation, in 117 cm green fertilizer belt transplanted 3 lines of sorghum, nest distance of 25 cm, nest transplantation, 2 plants per nest, mu to ensure 6000 plants (empty belt planted soybeans, vegetables, peppers, sweet potatoes, peanuts and other crops);Net as beam distance 50-66.7 cm, nest distance 26.7-33.3 cm, nesting transplant, each nest 2 plants, mu guarantee 8000-10000 plants.(5) Scientific fertilization.1. The basal.Apply before direct seeding or transplanting, 1500 kg of high quality farm manure or 60-80 kg of commercial organic manure.2. The seedling fertilizer.Direct seeding is applied at the uniform seedling stage. Within 10-15 days after transplanting, the main manure cleaning water, biogas slurry 1000-1500 kg, and urea 10-15 kg are applied.3. Earing fertilizer.In jointing and booting stage combined with tillage weeding, soil application.The main application of excrement water 1000 kg, and urine 10 kg or compound fertilizer (N:P2O5:K2O=15:15:15, the same below) 20-30 kg or commercial organic fertilizer 50-70 kg.4. LiFei.It is carried out in the period from heading to filling.Apply urea about 5 kg or compound fertilizer 10-20 kg or commercial organic fertilizer 30 kg, or available organic foliar fertilizer 100 ~ 200 times liquid spray application.(6) Irrigation and drainage.In the heading period, the field water management should be strengthened. Irrigation and drainage should be done well according to the weather and soil moisture content. If there is too much rain, ditches should be opened for drainage.(7) Green prevention and control and unified control of diseases and insect pests.Focus on the prevention and control of tiger, aphid, armyworm, caterpillar, spodoptera exigua, purple spot, smut, etc.First, the borers in seedling stage can be lured and killed with sweet-and-sour liquid, that is, sugar, vinegar, wine and water are prepared with a ratio of 3:4:1:2. 5-10 pans (bowls) are placed in each mu to lure and kill adult worms.Second, in the emergence stage of insect pests, the use of solar light to kill insects, in the pest control area, targeted selection of moth, armyworm, spodoptera grassland and other traps and supporting traps, 1 set/mu, concentrated use.Three is the occurrence of smut, artificial timely removal, take out of the field centralized processing.Fourth, in the critical period of the prevention and control of diseases and insect pests, according to the forecast and actual occurrence of the field, the implementation of standard drug control. When the degree of diseases and insect pests is relatively light, the priority is to choose biological agents, so as to play a sustainable role in pest control.Fifth, to prevent waterlogging in the field, clean the countryside, the implementation of crop rotation and other measures to prevent pests and diseases.Sixth, alternate and alternate use of chemical pesticides can effectively delay drug resistance.High efficiency and low capacity sprayers or plant protection drones are used for unified defense.Common pest control agents (see Table 1).(8) Harvest.The best harvest time is in the later stage of grain filling, and about 80% of the grains turn from white to reddish brown.After harvesting, timely threshing, drying, miscellaneous.(9) Storage.When dried to water content less than or equal to 13%, with a special container, stored separately.Do not use pesticides or fertilizers or other harmful substances in containers.Statement: The copyright of this article belongs to the original author, if there is a source error or infringement of your legitimate rights and interests, you can contact us through email, we will deal with it in a timely manner.Email address: jpbl@jp.jiupainews.com